Article history: Received: 25-09-2016, Accepted: 12-11-2016, Published online: 10-12-2016
Corresponding author: Mohammad Mahmudul Hassan
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgCitation: Islam A, Saifuddin AKM, Faruq AA, Islam S, Shano S, Alam M, Hassan MM. Antimicrobial residues in tissues and eggs of laying hens at Chittagong, Bangladesh. Int J One Health 2016;2:75-80.
Aim: Antimicrobial residue in animal food products is an important index of food safety. Antimicrobial residues could result from chemotherapeutic or chemoprophylactic use of drugs in food animals. This occurrence of residue in animal food products has received enormous worldwide attention from some local, international, and public health agencies. A crosssectional study was conducted from July to December 2009 to detect the antibiotic residues in tissues and eggs of laying hens at Chittagong of Bangladesh.
Materials and Methods: Microbial inhibition test (MIT) and thin layer chromatography (TLC) methods were used to detect antibacterial residues in poultry tissues (liver, kidney, breast, and thigh muscles) and eggs. The bacteria and pH of the MIT method were as follows: Bacillus subtilis on test agar medium with a pH of 7.2, Bacillus cereus with a pH of 6.0, and Escherichia coli at pH with an 8.0.
Results: The overall prevalence of antibiotic residues detected by MIT was 64% in liver, 63% in kidney, 56% in breast muscle, 50% in thigh muscle, and 60% in eggs. There was significant variation in results between MIT and TLC (p<0.05). Tetracycline residues were found in 48% in liver, 24% in kidneys, 20% in thigh muscles, 26% in breast muscles, and 36% in eggs. Ciprofloxacin residues were found 46% in liver, 42% in kidneys, 34% in thigh muscles, 30% in breast muscles, and 30% in eggs. Enrofloxacin residues were found 40% in livers, 36% in kidneys, 24% in thigh muscles, 20% in breast muscles, and 26% in eggs. Amoxicillin residues were found 48% in livers, 30% in kidneys, 26% in thigh muscles, 22% in breast muscles, and 24% in eggs. The most frequently detected antibiotic residues by both MIT and TLC were found in liver tissue, tetracycline (48%), ciprofloxacin (46%), enrofloxacin (40%), and amoxicillin (42%) were found in liver. Breast muscle tissue was least likely to contain antibiotic residues (24%). Tetracycline (p=0.01) and amoxicillin (p=0.03) residues had significant variation among the various poultry tissues and eggs.
Conclusion: A high percentage of tissues and eggs that could be available for human consumption had antibiotic residues. This study suggests that poultry meat and eggs should not be circulated to markets until the end of the drug's withdrawal period. It is also recommended to observe the withdrawal period of drugs before poultry slaughter or table egg distribution to avoid antimicrobial resistance and to inform both owners and consumers about the risks of antibiotic residues.
Keywords: antimicrobial, eggs, microbial inhibition test, poultry, thin layer chromatography, tissues.
1. Pavlov AI, Lashev LI, Vachin RV. Residues of antimicrobial drugs in chicken meat and offals. Trakia J Sci 2008;6:23.
2. Ahaduzzaman M, Hassan MM, Alam M, Islam S, Uddin I. Antimicrobial resistance pattern against Staphylococcus aureus in environmental effluents. Res J Vet Pract 2014;2:13-6. [Crossref]
3. Sattar S, Hassan MM, Islam S, Alam M, Faruk M, Chowdhury S, et al. Antibiotic residues in broiler and layer meat in Chittagong district of Bangladesh. Vet World 2014;7:738-43. [Crossref]
4. Mahmud T, Hassan MM, Alam M, Khan MM, Bari MS, Islam A. Prevalence and multidrug-resistant pattern of Salmonella from the eggs and egg-storing trays of retail markets of Bangladesh. Int J One Health 2016;2:7-11. [Crossref]
5. Ebubekir A, Ahmet S, Erog EK. Effect of egg shape index on mechanical properties of chicken eggs. J Food Eng 2008;85:606-12. [Crossref]
6. Chowdhury S, Hassan MM, Alam M, Sattar S, Bari MS, Saifuddin AK, et al. Antibiotic residues in milk and eggs of commercial and local farms at Chittagong, Bangladesh. Vet World 2015;8:467-71. [Crossref] [PubMed][PMC]
7. Hassan MM, Amin KB, Ahaduzzaman M, Alam M, Al Faruk MS, Uddin I. Antimicrobial resistance pattern against E. coli and Salmonella in layer poultry. Res J Vet Pract 2014;2:30-5. [Crossref]
8. Nonga HE, Simon C, Karimuribo ED, Mdegela RH. Assessment of antimicrobial usage and residues in commercial chicken eggs from small holder poultry keepers in Morogoro municipality, Tanzania. Zoonoses Public Health 2010;57:339. [PubMed]
9. Kirbis A. Microbiological screening method for detection of aminoglycosides, β-lactames, macrolides, tetracyclines and quinolones in meat samples. Slov Vet Res 2007;44:11-8.
10. Sirdar MM, Picard J, Bisschop S, Jambalang AR, Gummow B. A survey of antimicrobial residues in table eggs in Khartoum State, Sudan, 2007-2008. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 2012;79:E1-9. [Crossref]
11. Hassan M, Ahaduzzaman M, Alam M, Bari M, Amin K, Faruq AA. Antimicrobial resistance pattern against E. coli and Salmonella spp. in environmental effluents. Int J Nat Sci 2016;5:52-8. [Crossref]
12. Islam A, Nath AD, Islam K, Islam S, Chakma S, Hossain MB, et al. Isolation, identification and antimicrobial resistance profile of Staphylococcus aureus in Cockroaches (Periplaneta americana). J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016;3:221-8. [Crossref]
13. Choi J, Yee AJ, Thompson D, Samoluk J, Mitchell M, Black WD. Determination of fluoroquinolone residues in animal tissues using Escherichia coli as indicator organism. J AOAC Int 1999;82:1407-12. [PubMed]
14. Popelka P, Nagy J, Germuska R, Marcincak S, Jevinova P, De Rijk A. Comparison of various assays used for detection of beta-lactam antibiotics in poultry meat. Food Addit Contam 2005;22:557-62. [Crossref] [PubMed]
15. Amjad H, Iqbal J, Naeem M. Analysis of some residual antibiotics in muscle, kidney and liver samples of broiler chicken by various methods. Proc Pak Acad Sci 2005;42:223-31.
16. Wachira WM, Shitandi A, Ngure R. Determination of the limit of detection of penicillin G residues in poultry meat using a low cost microbiological method. Int Food Res J 2011;18:1203-8.
17. Van Egmond H. The 6 plate test: Screening on banned antibiotics in complete feedingstuffs, milk replacers and mineral feeds, competitive and sustainable growth programme-screening and identification methods for official control of banned antibiotics and growth promoters in feeding stuffs. Laboratory Instruction. Wageningen, The Netherlands: Institute of Food Safety; 2004.
18. Karraouan B, Bouchrif B, Ziyate N, Talmi A, Yahia KI, Cohen N, et al. Evaluation of multi-plate microbial assay for the screening of antibacterial residues in poultry muscle. Eur J Sci Res 2009;35:311-7.
19. Okerman L, De Wasch K, Van Hoof J, Smedts W. Simultaneous determination of different antibiotic residues in bovine and in porcine kidneys by solid-phase fluorescence immunoassay. J AOAC Int 2003;86:236-40. [PubMed]
20. Przenioslo-Siwczynska M, Kwiatek K. Evaluation of multi-plate microbial assay for the screening of antibacterial substances in animal feeding stuffs. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 2007;7:599-602.
21. Okerman L, Noppe H, Cornet V, de Zutter L. Microbiological detection of 10 quinolone antibiotic residues and its application to artificially contaminated poultry samples. Food Addit Contam 2007;24:252-7. [Crossref] [PubMed]
22. Naeem M, Rafiq KK. Determination of residues of quinolones in poultry products by pressure liquid chromatography. J Appl Sci 2006;6:373-9. [Crossref]
23. Amjad H, Iqbal J, Naeem M. Estimation of selected residual antibiotics in muscle, kidney, liver, and egg of layer chicken. Proc Pak Acad Sci 2006;43:29-37.
24. Thangadurai S, Shukla SK, Anjaneyulu Y. Separation and detection of certain beta-lactam and fluoroquinolone antibiotic drugs by thin layer chromatography. Anal Sci 2002;18:97-100. [Crossref] [PubMed]
25. Salehzadeh F, Madani R, Salehzadeh A, Rokhni N, Golchinefar F. Oxytetracycline residues in chicken tissues from Tehran slaughterhouses in Iran. J Nutr 2006;5:377-81.
26. Lehotay SJ, Lightfield AR, Geis-Asteggiante L, Schneider MJ, Dutko T, Ng C, et al. Development and validation of a streamlined method designed to detect residues of 62 veterinary drugs in bovine kidney using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography - Tandem mass spectrometry. Drug Test Anal 2012;4 Suppl 1:75-90. [Crossref] [PubMed]
28. Luboslava RR, Jozef N, Hanna R, Peter P, Pavlina J. Suitability of star and premi-test for the detection of amoxicillin residues in leying hens. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 2006;50:367-71.