Article history: Received: 15-01-2019, Accepted: 27-02-2019, Published online: 27-03-2019
Corresponding author: Iliya Dauda Kwoji
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgCitation: Kwoji ID, Musa JA, Daniel N, Mohzo DL, Bitrus AA, Ojo AA, Ezema KU. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in chickens from small-scale (backyard) poultry farms in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Int J One Health 2019;5:26-30.
Aim: This study investigated the occurrence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in chickens from small-scale (backyard) commercial poultry farms in Maiduguri.
Materials and Methods: A total of 96 cloacal swab samples were collected. This comprised of 24 samples each from broiler chicks, pullets, layers, and broilers (adults). The samples were examined for the presence of E. coli using conventional microbiological culture and biochemical tests. The pure E. coli isolates were screened for ESBL production by culturing onto BrillianceTM ESBL agar. Isolates that showed positive reactions with production of bluish or pinkish colonies were tested for susceptibilities against some selected beta-lactam antibiotics which include cefotaxime (30 μg), ceftriaxone (30 μg), cefpodoxime (10 μg), aztreonam (30 μg), and ceftazidime (30 μg). Isolates that exhibited resistance to any two or three of the antibiotics were selected and confirmed by combination disk diffusion method with ceftazidime (30 μg) and cefotaxime (30 μg) alone and in combination with clavulanic acid (30 μg/10 μg).
Results: The total occurrence of E. coli was 67.6% (65/96) with the highest occurrence of 83.3% (20/24) from broiler chicks and least detection of 54.2% (13/24) from layers. Of this, 32.0% were ESBL-producing E. coli with the highest detection rate from layers (38.5%) and least occurrence from pullets (26.7%).
Conclusion: This study revealed the presence of ESBL-producing E. coli in chickens from small-scale commercial poultry farms in Maiduguri, thus indicating that chickens may serve as important reservoirs for the transmission of antimicrobial resistant pathogens to humans through the food chain.
Keywords: antimicrobials, chickens, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, Escherichia coli, Maiduguri.
2. WHO. Global Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance; 2015.
3. Kraemer JG, Pires J, Kueffer M, Semaani E, Endimiani A, Hilty M, et al. Prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pig farms in Switzerland. Sci Total Environ 2017:603-4. [Crossref]
4. Bitrus AA, Chuanchuen R, Luangtongkum T. Emergence of colistin resistance in extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated from food animals and its public health implication: A review. J Adv Vet Anim Res 2018;5:1-1.
5. Rottier WC, Ammerlaan HS, Bonten MJ. Effects of confounders and intermediates on the association of bacteremia caused by extended-spectrum -lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and patient outcome: A meta-analysis. J Antimicrob Chemother 2012;67:1311-20. [Crossref] [PubMed]
6. Chishimba K, Hangombe BM, Muzandu K, Mshana SE, Matee MI, Nakajima C, et al. Detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in market-ready chickens in Zambia. Int J Microbiol 2016;5:5275724.
7. Kluytmans-van den Bergh MF, Rossen JW, Bruijning-Verhagen PC, Bonten MJ, Friedrich AW, Vandenbroucke-Grauls CM, et al. Whole-genome multilocus sequence typing of extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. J Clin Microbiol 2016;54:2919-27. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
8. Runcharoen C, Raven KE, Reuter S, Kallonen T, Paksanont S, Thammachote J, et al. Whole-genome sequencing of ESBL producing Escherichia coli isolated from patients, farm waste and canals in Thailand. Gen Med 2017;9:81-93. [Crossref]
9. Gundogan N, Avci E. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species isolated from foods of animal origin in Turkey. Afr J Microbiol Res 2013;7:4059-64.
10. Gao L, Tan Y, Zhang X, Hu J, Miao Z, Wei L and Chai T. Emissions of Escherichia coli carrying extended-spectrum β-lactamase resistance from pig farms to the surrounding environment. Int J Environ Res Pub Health 2015;12:4203-13. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
11. Webster P. The perils of poultry. Can Med Ass 2009;7:1-2. [Crossref]
12. Kwoji ID, Tambuwal FM, Abubakar MB, Yakubu Y, Bitrus AA, Jauro S. Occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in chickens and farm personnel in Sokoto, North-western Nigeria. J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017;4:255-60.
13. Madec JY, Haenni M, Nordmann P, Poirel L. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase/AmpC-and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in animals: A threat for humans? Clin Microbiol Infect 2017;23:826-33. [Crossref] [PubMed]
15. Silvia LM and Jacoby AG. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase. US: Wolters Kluwer Health; 2014.
17. Canton R, Novais A, Valverde A, Machado E, Peix`e L, Baquero F, et al. Prevalence and spread of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in European society. Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2008;14:144-53. [Crossref] [PubMed]
18. Horton RA, Duncan D, Randall LP, Chappell S, Brunton LA, Warner R, et al. Longitudinal study of CTX-M ESBL-producing E. coli strains on a UK dairy farm. Res Vet Sci 2016;109:107-13. [Crossref] [PubMed]
19. Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). Statistical Database of Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome, Italy: Food and Agricultural Organization; 1999.
20. Emokaro CO, Akinrinmola FK, Emokpae OP. Economics of backyard poultry farming in Benin City, Edo state, Nigeria. Nig J Agric Food Environ 2016;12:50-5.
21. Mshelia IT, Atsanda NN, Bitrus AA, Adam BM, Fika II, Balami SB, et al. Retrospective study of selected endemic viral diseases of poultry diagnosed in Maiduguri North-Eastern Nigeria. J Anim Health Prod 2016;4:60-4. [Crossref]
22. Maikasuwa MA, Jabo MS. Profitability of backyard poultry farming in Sokoto metropolis, Sokoto state, North-West, Nigeria. Nig J Basic Appl Sci 2011;19:111-5. [Crossref]
23. Gambo HI, Bitrus AA, Adam BM, Goni DM, Kwoji ID, Thliza SJ, et al. Survey of hepatic lesions and incriminating pathogens in rural scavenger chickens in Maiduguri, North-Eastern Nigeria. Adv Anim Vet Sci 2016;4:174-7. [Crossref]
24. Nafarnda WD, Ajayi IE, Shawulu JC. Bacteriological quality of abattoir effluents discharged into water bodies in Abuja, Nigeria. ISRN Vet Sci 2012;5:515689. [Crossref]
25. Anjum MF, Lemma F, Cork DJ, Meunier D, Murphy N, North SE, et al. Isolation and detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae from meat using chromogenic agars and isothermal loop-mediated amplification (LAMP) assays. J Food Sci 2013;78:M1892-8. [Crossref] [PubMed]
27. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI): Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Twenty-Sixth Informational Supplement. CLSI Document M100-S26. Wayne, PA: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; 2016.
28. Kegode RB, Doetkott DK, Khaitsa ML, Wesley IV. Occurrence of Campylobacter species, Salmonella species and generic Escherichia coli in meat products from retail outlets in the Fargo metropolitan area. J Food Saf 2008;28:111-25. [Crossref]
29. Abdeltawab AA, Abdelaal SA, Mazied EM, EL-Morsy DL. Prevalence of E. coli in broiler chickens in winter and summer seasons by application of PCR with its antibiogram pattern. Benha Vet Med J 2015;29:119-128.
30. Saliu BK, Sule IO, Agbabiaka TO. Comparative study of bacteria in the digestive tract of chicken reared as free rangers and those reared at poultry. Biol Environ Sci J Trop 2012;9:26-9.
31. Salah-Eldin TA, Hamady GA, Abdel-Moneim MA, Farroh KY, El-Reffaei WH. Nutritional evaluation of Selenium-methionine nanocomposite as a novel dietary supplement for laying hens. J Anim Health Prod 2015;3:64-72. [Crossref]
32. Shoaib M, Kamboh AA, Sajid A, Mughal GA, Leghari RA, Malhi KK, et al. Prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae in commercial broilers and backyard chickens. Adv Anim Vet Sci 2016;4:209-14. [Crossref]
33. Overdevest I, Willemsen I, Rijnsburger M, Eustace A, Xu L, Hawkey P, et al. Extended-spectrum β-Lactamase genes of Escherichia coli in chicken meat and humans, the Netherlands. Emerg Infect Dis 2011;17:1216-22. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]
34. Beninati C, Reich F, Muscolino D, Giarratana F, Panebianco A, Klein G, et al. ESBL-producing bacteria and MRSA isolated from poultry and turkey products imported from Italy. Czech J Food Sci 2015;33:97-102. [Crossref]35. Stuart JC, van den Munckhof T, Voets G, Scharringa J, Fluit A, Hall ML. Comparison of ESBL contamination in organic and conventional retail chicken meat. Int J Food Microbiol 2012;154:212-4. [Crossref] [PubMed]