Article history: Received: 06-12-2018, Accepted: 14-01-2019, Published online: 13-03-2019
Corresponding author: Amira Ahmed
E-mail: email@example.comCitation: Fadel HM, Ahmed A. Screening of crows and waterfowls for Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes infection. Int J One Health 2019;5:9-19.
Background and Aim: Wild birds can carry a number of potential human and animal pathogens. These birds can intrude into human habitats giving the opportunity to transmission of such infection. Therefore, the current study was designed to investigate the role of crows and waterfowls as vectors of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes and to compare cultivation methods with direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of infection.
Materials and Methods: A total of 200 fecal dropping samples were collected. Salmonella was cultivated by three step method (Universal Pre-enrichment Broth [UPB], Rappaport-Vassiliadis Broth, and Xylose Lysine Desoxycholate agar). The recovered isolates were characterized by biotyping, serotyping, and PCR detection of enterotoxin (stn) gene. The antibiogram pattern of isolates against a panel of 8 antibiotics was recorded. L. monocytogenes was cultivated on UPB, then on Listeria Oxford Agar and Listeria CHROMagar. The recovered isolates were characterized by biotyping and PCR detection of listeriolysin (hylA) gene.
Results: The percentages of Salmonella infection in crows and waterfowls were 10 and 20, respectively. The most frequently recovered serovars were Typhimurium, Potengi, Enteritidis, and Kentucky. Antimicrobial susceptibility analysis of Salmonella isolates showed that the resistance rates for gentamicin were the highest (92%), followed by amoxicillin (88%) and cefixime (60%). Resistance to 8 antibiotics was recorded in 60% (15/25) of Salmonella isolates. The percentages of L. monocytogenes infection in crows and waterfowls were 1.3 and 2, respectively. Direct PCR applied to UPB revealed that 12% and 3% of samples were positive for Salmonella and L. monocytogenes, respectively, and there was no significant difference between direct PCR and cultivation method for the detection of infection.
Conclusion: The present findings indicate that wild birds can harbor zoonotic enteric pathogens and this necessitates monitoring the epidemiologic status of these pathogens among wild birds and humans and applying the appropriate intervention measures to prevent the spread of infection.
Keywords: antibiotic susceptibility, crows, hylA and stn genes, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, waterfowl.
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