Open Access
Research (Published online: 01-11-2018)
9. Preliminary field survey on Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle herds using caudal fold intradermal tuberculin test in two Northeastern States of Nigeria
Salisu Ibrahim, Bello Abubakar Usman, Danbirni Samaila and Adamu Saleh Saidu
International Journal of One Health, 4: 52-58

Salisu Ibrahim: Department of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.
Bello Abubakar Usman: Department of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.
Danbirni Samaila: Department of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.
Adamu Saleh Saidu: Department of Veterinary Public Health and Epidemiology, College of Veterinary Science, Lala Lajpat Rai, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Hisar, Haryana, India.

doi: 10.14202/IJOH.2018.52-58

Share this article on [Facebook] [LinkedIn]

Article history: Received: 28-06-2018, Accepted: 17-09-2018, Published online: 01-11-2018

Corresponding author: Salisu Ibrahim


Citation: Ibrahim S, Usman BA, Samaila D, Saidu AS (2018) Preliminary field survey on Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle herds using caudal fold intradermal tuberculin test in two Northeastern States of Nigeria, Int J One Health 2018;4:52-58.

Aim: A survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in two states of Northeastern Nigeria, namely Bauchi and Gombe States, between February 2010 and November 2014 using caudal fold tuberculin (CFT) skin test.

Materials and Methods: A total of 5489 cattle were screened using single CFT in Bauchi and Gombe States. Of the 5489 cattle, 2116 cattle were from 189 herds in five testing areas in Bauchi State and 3373 cattle in 217 herds from five testing areas from Gombe State.

Results: On the basis of the CFT, herd prevalence obtained was 56.08% in Bauchi and 55.29% in Gombe State, while the individual animal prevalence was 10.96% in Bauchi and 13.73% obtained in Gombe State. The prevalence based on the testing areas in Bauchi State, Alamari had the highest prevalence with 19.4 % and Disina the lowest with 9.0 %, while in Gombe State, Wakaltu had the highest prevalence with 20.9 % and Poshereng the lowest with 8.0 %. Cows were more likely to have tuberculosis lesions than bulls (p=0.0035) in Bauchi State, but there was no significant difference in Gombe State (p=0.166). However, a statistically significant association (p<0.05) was observed among the cattle age groups with cattle ≥4 years having higher odds for tuberculin reactivity compared to those below the age of 4 years in Bauchi State only.

Conclusion: There is the need to strengthen routine meat inspection and public health awareness programs on the zoonotic nature of bTB among the abattoir workers and the herdsmen.

Keywords: bovine tuberculosis, cattle herds, caudal folds, Northeastern Nigeria, tuberculin test.


1. Bovine Tuberculosis Disease Information. United States Department of Agriculture; 2016. Available from: [Last accessed on 2018 Jun 16].

2. Awah-Ndukum J, Kudi CA, Bradley G, Ane-Anyangwe IN., Fon-Tebug S, Tchoumboue J. Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in abattoirs of the littoral and Western Highland regions of Cameroon: A cause for public health concern. Vet Med Int 2010;2101:Article ID 495015. [Crossref]

3. Ewnetu L, Melaku A, Birhanu A. Bovine tuberculosis prevalence in slaughtered cattle at Akaki municipal abattoir based on meat inspection methods. Glob Vet 2012;9:541-5.

4. Russel DG. Highlighting the parallels between human and animal tuberculosis. J Vet Med Edu 2003;30:140-2. [Crossref]

5. Mamo G, Abebe F, Worku Y, Hussein N, Legesse M, Tilahun G, et al. Bovine tuberculosis and its associated risk factors in pastoral and agro-pastoral cattle herds of Afar region, Northeast Ethiopia. J Vet Med Anim Health 2013;6:171-9.

6. Ashford DA, Whitney E, Raghunatan P, Cosivi O. Epidemiology of selected Mycobacteria that infect humans and other animals. Microbacterial infections in domestic and wild animals. OIE Rev Sci Tech 2001;20:245-52. [Crossref]

7. Berg S, Schelling E, Hailu E, Firdessa R, Gumi B, Erenso, G, et al. Investigation of the high rates of extra pulmonary tuberculosis in Ethiopia reveals no single driving factor and minimal evidence for zoonotic transmission of Mycobacterium bovis infection. BMC Infect Dis 2015;15:112. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]

8. Radostits DM, Blood DC, Gay CC. Veterinary Medicine: A Textbook of Diseases of Cattle, Sheep, Pig, Goat and Horses. 9th ed. London: Harcourt Publisher Ltd.; 2000. p. 909-18.

9. Muller B, Durr S, Alonso S, Hattendorf J, Claudio JM, Sven DC, et al. Zoonotic Mycobacterium bovis-induced tuberculosis in humans. Emerg Infect Dis 2013;19:899-908. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]

10. Thoen CO, Bloom BR. Pathogenesis of Mycobacterium bovis. In: Thoen CO, Steele JH, editors. Mycobacterium bovis infection in animals and humans. Ames (IA): Iowa State Press; 1995. p. 3-14.

11. Cosivi O, Grange JM, Daborn CJ, Raviglione MC, Fujikura T, Cousins D, et al. Zoonotic tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in developing countries. Emerg Infect Dis 1998;4:59-70. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]

12. Asseged B, Lubke-Becker A, Lemma E, Taddele K, Britton S. Bovine TB: A cross-sectional and epidemiological study in and around Addis Ababa. Bull Anim Health Prod Afr 2000;67:71-80.

13. Cadmus SI, Yakubu MK, Magaji AA, Akinbowale OJ, van Soolingen D. Mycobacterium bovis, but also M. africanum present in raw milk of pastoral cattle in North-Central Nigeria. Trop Anim Health Prod 2010;42:1047-8. [Crossref] [PubMed]

14. Ameni G, Vordermeier M, Firdessa R, Aseffa A, Hewinson G, Gordon SV, et al. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in grazing cattle in central Ethiopia. Vet J 2011;188:359-61. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]

15. Ejeh EF, Markus IF, Ejeh AS, Musa JA, Lawan FA, Ameh JA, et al. Seasonal prevalence of bovine tuberculosis lesion in cattle slaughtered in Yola abattoirs. Bangladesh J Vet Med 2013;11:113-20.

16. Alhaji I. Bovine Tuberculosis in Four Northern States of Nigeria. PhD Thesis. Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria; 1976a.

17. Eid FS. Some observations on bovine tuberculosis in North States of Nigeria. J Niger Vet Med Assoc 1976;5:35-8.

18. Ayanwale FO. Studies on the Epidemiology of Bovine TB in Some States of Southern Nigeria. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Ibadan, Nigeria; 1984. p. 184.

19. Dusai DH, Abdullahi DA. Current status of bovine TB at Sokoto abattoir. Trop Vet 1994;12:134-7.

20. Cadmus SI, Atsanda NN, Oni SO, Akang EE. Bovine tuberculosis in one cattle herd in Ibadan in Nigeria. Vet Med 1984;49:406-12. [Crossref]

21. Bauchi state Diary. Nigeria/BauchiState.html. [Last accessed on 2018 Sept 11].

22. NPC, 2006., [Last accessed on 2018 Oct 13].

23. Martin, SW, Meek, AH and Willeberg, P (1987).Veterinary Epidemiology Principle and Methods.IOWA State University Press,Ames.

24. Organization Internationale des Epizootics/Organization Internationale des Epizootics (OIE). Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals. OIE, Paris, France; 2010. Available from: [Last accessed on 14-04-2018].

25. Abubakar IA. Molecular Epidemiology of Human and Bovine Tuberculosis in the Federal Capital Territory and Kaduna State, Ph.D. Thesis, Plymouth University, Plymouth, UK; 2007.

26. Shehu LM. Survey of Tuberculosis and Tubercle Bacilli in Fulani Herds: "Nono" and some Herdsmen in Zaria, Nigeria. M.Sc Thesis, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria; 1988.

27. Jiwa SF, Kazwala RR, Aboud AA, Kalaye WJ. Bovine tuberculosis in the Lake Victoria Zone of Tanzania and its possible consequences for human health in the HIV/AIDS era. Vet Res Commun 1997;21:533-9. [Crossref]

28. Bugwesa ZK, Mbugi EV, Karimuribo ED, Keyyu JD, Kendall S, Kibiki GS. Prevalence and risk factors for infection of bovine tuberculosis in indigenous cattle in the Serengeti ecosystem, Tanzania. BMC Vet Res 2013;9:267. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]

29. Tizard I. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA, London: W.B. Saunders; 2000. p. 381-90.

30. Kaltungo BY, Saidu SN, Sackey AK, Kazeem HM. Serological evidence of brucellosis in goats in Kaduna North senatorial district of Kaduna state, Nigeria. ISRN Vet Sci 2013;2013:6. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]

31. De-Lahunta A, Habel RC. Teeth: Applied Veterinary Anatomy. USA: W.B. Saunder Company; 1986. p. 4-12.

32. Lackech E, Achenef M, Ayalew B. Bovine tuberculosis prevalence in slaughtered cattle at Akaki municipal abattoir, based on meat inspection methods. Glob Vet 2012;9:541-5.

33. Gumi B, Schelling E, Firdessa R, Aseffa A, Tschopp R, Yamuah L, et al. Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in pastoral cattle herds in the Oromia region, Southern Ethiopia. Trop Anim Health Prod 2011;43:1081-7. [Crossref] [PubMed]

34. Cleaveland S, Shaw DJ, Mfinanga SG, Shirima G, Kazwala RR, Eblate E, et al. Mycobacterium bovis in rural Tanzania: Risk factors for infection in human and cattle populations. Tuberculosis (Edinb) 2007;87:30-43. [Crossref] [PubMed]

35. Kazwala RR, Kambarage DM, Daborn CJ, Nyange J, Jiwa SF, Sharp JM. Risk factors association with the occurrence of bovine tuberculosis in cattle in the Southern Highland of Tanzania. Vet Res Commun 2001;25:609-14. [Crossref]

36. Inangolet FO, Biffa D, Oloya J, Opuda-Asibo J, Skjerve EA. Cross-sectional study of bovine tuberculosis in the transhumant and agro-pastoral cattle herds in the border areas of Katakwmi and Moroto districts, Uganda. Trop Anim Health Prod 2008;40:501-8. [Crossref] [PubMed]