Open Access
Research (Published online: 03-04-2018)
4. Immunologic determination of chloramphenicol residue in commercial birds at Nsukka, Enugu State, Southeast Nigeria
Ekene Vivienne Ezenduka, Benedict Chinonoso Okonkwo, Chidiebere Ohazuruike Anyaoha, John Anaelom Nwanta and Aruh Anaga
International Journal of One Health, 4: 22-27

Ekene Vivienne Ezenduka: Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.
Benedict Chinonoso Okonkwo: Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.
Chidiebere Ohazuruike Anyaoha: Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.
John Anaelom Nwanta: Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.
Aruh Anaga: Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.

doi: 10.14202/IJOH.2018.22-27

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Article history: Received: 01-02-2018, Accepted: 07-03-2018, Published online: 03-04-2018

Corresponding author: Ekene Vivienne Ezenduka


Citation: Ezenduka EV, Okonkwo BC, Anyaoha CO, Nwanta JA, Anaga A. Immunologic determination of chloramphenicol residue in commercial birds at Nsukka, Enugu State, Southeast Nigeria. Int J One Health 2018;4:22-27.

Aim: This study aimed to determine the presence and prevalence of chloramphenicol (CAP, a drug which was banned for use in food-producing animals due to many side effects) residue in commercial birds slaughtered at Ikpa abattoir and its awareness and usage in farms at Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was done with the use of a questionnaire on usage and awareness of CAP and screening for its presence in commercial poultry in the study area. The questionnaire was supplied to 35 commercial farms, and liver samples from 300 commercial broilers were analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique; the prevalence was then determined.

Results: Of the 35 farms evaluated, 33 (94%) responded. In the management practice, 57.6% of the farms use intensive deep litter, 18.2% intensive battery cage, and 24.2% extensive farming system. 19 (69.7%) farms rear only broilers, 12.1% layers, and 15.1% both. The feeding management showed that 21.1% of farmers produce their own feed with inclusion of antibiotics while 78.8% use commercial feed, of which 11.5% incorporate antibiotics. The findings also showed that 54.4% of the respondents use CAP and only 30.3% are aware of the consequences of antimicrobial residue in food and have knowledge of the legislation on the prudent use of antimicrobials in food animals. Of the 300 samples screened for CAP residue, 18.7% were positive with concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 6.2 parts per billion.

Conclusion: CAP is still very much in use in the study area, despite the ban, and it is present in the tissues of commercial birds meant for human consumption.

Keywords: chloramphenicol, drug residue, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, liver, poultry.


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