International Journal of One Health

Open access and peer reviewed journal on Human, Animal and Environmental health

ISSN (Online): 2455-8931

ISSN (Print): 2455-5673

 

 


  Home


  Editorial board


  Instructions to authors


  Reviewer guideline


  Open access policy


  Archives


  FAQ


 

 

Open Access

Copyright: The Authors. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution
4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and
reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the
Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/ publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.


Research (Published online: 27-05-2017)

4. Efficacy and efficiency of poultry carcass composting using different mechanical mixing equipment for avian influenza outbreaks - Jennifer Elizabeth Keaten and Mark Hutchinson

International Journal of One Health, 3: 19-27

 

 

  doi: 10.14202/IJOH.2017.19-27

 

Jennifer Elizabeth Keaten: College of Public Health, University of Iowa, 23 Holden Hills, Bridgton, ME 04009, USA.

Mark Hutchinson: University of Maine Cooperative Extension, Libby Hall Orono, Maine 04469, USA.

 

Received: 23-02-2017, Accepted: 28-04-2017, Published online: 27-05-2017

 

Corresponding author: Jennifer Elizabeth Keaten, e-mail: haec.puella@gmail.com


Citation: Keaten JE, Hutchinson M. Efficacy and efficiency of poultry carcass composting using different mechanical mixing equipment for avian influenza outbreaks. Int J One Health 2017;3:19-27.


Abstract


Background and Aim: Avian influenza (AI) is a viral disease that caused the largest animal disease outbreak in the history of US agriculture. There are several disposal methods of AI infected poultry carcasses available in the US, which include on-site burial, landfill, incineration, rendering, and composting. Of these methods, composting is the most environmentally friendly and poses a low risk for biosecurity. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has developed a comprehensive plan for composting AI infected carcasses. The current protocols have the potential for areas of anaerobic pockets within the windrow due to inadequate mixing and the large carcass size of whole birds. This could lead to ineffective virus neutralization or prolonged composting times and higher resource costs. The purpose of this project was to determine if using a horizontal mixer (HM) wagon to mix composting ingredients or a vertical mixer (VM) wagon to mix and cut up the compositing ingredients is an economical and timely means to accelerate the tissue break-down and obtain optimal temperatures for poultry carcass composting during an AI outbreak.

Materials and Methods: A replicated trial with three treatments, HM, conventional layering (CL) and VM, and three replications was initiated at the Compost Research and Education Center part of the University of Maine Forest and Agricultural Experimental Station called High Moor Farm. Daily temperatures and screened core sample weights (screen weights) on day 0, 16, and 30 were recorded for each of the compost piles. The time to build each replication was recorded and used to help calculate the cost of each method. Data on equipment, carbon material and labor costs were collected from private contractors from the 2014 to 2016 highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) outbreak and used to compare costs between methods.

Results: All treatment methods reached USDA protocol temperatures to neutralize the HPAI virus. Screen weights for both the VM and HM treatments were lower than the CL treatment. Screen weights decreased significantly from day 0 to day 16 for the VM and HM treatments with no significant change from day 16 to day 30. When comparing costs, the mixer wagon methods were the more cost effective than the CL method when using high volume equipment.

Conclusion: The data from this study support the use of a mixer wagon to reduce particle size and mix ingredients for more timely and effective composting of poultry carcasses.

Keywords: carcass management, compost, high pathogenic avian influenza, poultry.


References


1. WHO. Avian Influenza: Fact Sheet; 2014. Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/avian_influenza/en/#. [Last cited on 2016 Oct 10].
 
2. Swayne DE, editor. Avian Influenza. Hoboken: Wiley; 2009.
 
3. Institute CWM. Summary of Avian Influenza. Cornell University, Sciences DoCaS; Report. January; 2008.
 
4. Ungchusak K, Auewarakul P, Dowell SF, Kitphati R, Auwanit W, Puthavathana P, et al. Probable person-to-person transmission of avian influenza A (H5N1). N Engl J Med 2005;352:333-40.
https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa044021
PMid:15668219
 
5. CDC, CfDCaP. Transmission of Avian Influenza Virus between Animals and People; 2015. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avianflu/virus-transmission.htm. [Last updated on 2015 Oct 12; Last cited on 2016 Oct 19].
 
6. WHO. Cumultative Number of Confirmed cases for Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Reported to WHO, 2003-2016; 2016.
 
7. USDA. In: Service NAS, editor. Census of Agriculture Highlights: Poultry and Egg Production. US: USDA; 2015. p. 2.
 
8. Service USDoAER. Poultry and Eggs Overview; 2016. Available from: http://www.ers.usda.gov/topics/animal-products/poultry-eggs.aspx. [Last updated on 2016 Oct 19; Last cited on 2016 Oct 30].
 
9. Johansson RC, Preston WP, Seitzinger AH. Government spending to control highly pathogenic avian influenza. Choices: The Magazine of Food, Farm, and Resource Issues. Vol. 31. USA: Agricultural and Applied Economic Association, Utah State University; 2016.
 
10. Johnson KK, Seeger RM, Marsh TL. Local economies and highly pathogenic avian influenza. Choices: The Magazine of Food, Farm, and Resource Issues. Vol. 31 USA: Agricultural and Applied Economic Association, Utah State University; 2016
 
11. Greene JL. Update on the Highly-Pathogenic Avian Influenza Outbreak of 2014-2015. Congressional Research Service; 2015. p. 1-18.
 
12. Swayne D, Akey B. Avian influenza control strategies in the United States of America. Avian Influenza, Prevention and Control. Dordrecht: Springer; 2005. p. 113-30.
 
13. Blake JP, Donald J. Alternatives for the disposal of poultry carcasses. Poult Sci 1992;71:1130-5.
https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0711130
 
14. Graiver DA, Topliff CL, Kelling CL, Bartelt-Hunt SL. Survival of the avian influenza virus (H6N2) after land disposal. Environ Sci Technol 2009;43:4063-7.
https://doi.org/10.1021/es900370x
PMid:19569331
 
15. Bendfeldt ES, Peer RW, Flory GA. In-house composting as a rapid response to avian influenza. BioCycle 2006;47:38-42.
 
16. Flory GA, Peer RW, Richmond C. Initial Evaluation of the Effectiveness of On-Farm Composting for the Disposal of Market-Aged Turkey Carcasses Resulting from an Outbreak of Low Pathogenic AI (H5N2) in West Virginia; 2007. Available from: http://www.deq.virginia.gov/Portals/0/DEQ/Water/VirginiaPollutionAbatement/InitialEvaluation OfOnFarm CompostingInWestVirginia.pdf. [Last updated on 2007 Jun 27; Last cited on 2016 Oct 18].
 
17. Flory GA, Peer RW. Verification of poultry carcass composting research through application during actual avian influenza outbreaks. ILAR J 2010;51:149-57.
https://doi.org/10.1093/ilar.51.2.149
 
18. Lu H, Castro AE, Pennick K, Liu J, Yang Q, Dunn P, et al. Survival of avian influenza virus H7N2 in SPF chickens and their environments. Avian Dis 2003;47:1015-21.
https://doi.org/10.1637/0005-2086-47.s3.1015
PMid:14575104
 
19. Chumpolbanchorn K, Suemanotham N, Siripara N, Puyati B, Chaichoune K. The effect of temperature and UV light on infectivity of avian influenza virus (H5N1, Thai field strain) in chicken fecal manure. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2006;37:102-5.
PMid:16771220
 
20. Elving J, Emmoth E, Albihn A, Vinnerås B, Ottoson J. Composting for avian influenza virus elimination. Appl Environ Microbiol 2012;78:3280-5.
https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.07947-11
PMid:22389376 PMCid:PMC3346479
 
21. Senne DA, Panigrahy B, Morgan RL. Effect of composting poultry carcasses on survival of exotic avian viruses: Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus and adenovirus of egg drop syndrome-76. Avian Dis 1994;38:733-7.
https://doi.org/10.2307/1592108
PMid:7702505
 
22. Glanville TD, Richard TL, Harmon JD, Reynolds DL, Ahn HK, Akine S. Composting livestock mortalities. (Iowa department of natural resources). BioCycle 2006;47:42.
 
23. Guan J, Chan M, Grenier C, Wilkie DC, Brooks BW, Spencer JL. Survival of avian influenza and Newcastle disease viruses in compost and at ambient temperatures based on virus isolation and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR. Avian Dis 2009;53:26-33.
https://doi.org/10.1637/8381-062008-Reg.1
PMid:19432000
 
24. Tablante NL, Malone GW, editors. Controlling Avian Influenza Through In-House Composting of Depopulated Flocks: Sharing Delmarva's Experience. Proceedings of 2006 National Symposium on Carcass Disposal; 2006.
 
25. Elbert G. Phone Interview. October 20, 2016.
 
26. Miller LP, Flory GA, Peer RW, Benfeldt ES, Hutchinson ML, King MA, et al. FY2016 HPAI Response: Mortality Composting Protocol for Avian Influenza Infected Flocks. USDA APHIS. 2016. p. 31.
 
27. Plastina A, Johanns A, Erwin J. Iowa Farm Custom Rate Survey. Iowa State University, Outreach Ea; 2016 March 2016. Report No, Contract No. A3-10; 2016.
 
28. Payne JB. Email Interview. September 6, 2016.
 
29. Johnson KK. Phone Interview. September 13, 2016.
 

E-mail: editoronehealth@gmail.com, Website: www.onehealthjournal.org, Publisher: Veterinary World