Open Access
Research (Published online: 25-12-2017)
13. Level of knowledge of small-scale milk producers on bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in selected parts of Chongwe district
Emmanuel Chileshe
International Journal of One Health, 3: 83-86

Emmanuel Chileshe: Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia; Department of Veterinary Services, Mumbwa, Zambia.

doi: 10.14202/IJOH.2017.83-86

Share this article on [Facebook] [LinkedIn]

Article history: Received: 02-07-2017, Accepted: 27-11-2017, Published online: 25-12-2017

Corresponding author: Emmanuel Chileshe


Citation: Chileshe E. Level of knowledge of small-scale milk producers on bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in selected parts of Chongwe district. Int J One Health 2017;3:83-86.

Aim: This study was intended to establish the level of knowledge of small-scale milk producers on bovine tuberculosis (BTB), one of the neglected zoonotic diseases.

Materials and Methods: In this study, a descriptive cross-sectional survey design was used. A total of 369 small-scale milk producers were interviewed using a pretested interviewer questionnaire. Using a computer, data obtained from the operator-administered questionnaires were entered in Epidata® and exported to Stata 10.0® for analysis with which descriptive statistics were generated for analysis. The level of knowledge on BTB for both male and female small-scale milk producers was analyzed in relation to membership to cooperative, frequency of TB tests in cattle, availability of extension services, and milk handling and utilization practices. The relationships between the different hypothesized confounders and the binary outcome (BTB testing) were investigated with Pearson's Chi-squared test for association. Logistic regression model describing the BTB cattle testing among the farmers controlling for hypothesized confounders was finalized using likelihood ratio testing to screen the significance of posited confounders in the model. To ensure validity and eliminate bias of data, the interviews were limited to three interviewers. The questionnaires were pre-tested for clarity as well as to avoid confounding questions.

Results: Majority (95%) of the small-scale milk producers across the study had heard about BTB. The proportion of those who knew that it is transmittable to humans was low (43.8%). The proportion of those who knew its mode of transmission to humans was also low (32.4%). However, it was high in milk producers belonging to dairy cooperatives followed by producers in livestock cooperatives. It was noted that a small proportion of small-scale milk producers ensured that their cattle were tested for BTB. Logistic regression showed that there was 73 times likelihood that small-scale milk producers belonging to dairy cooperatives will have their cattle tested for BTB.

Conclusion: The study established a low level of knowledge on BTB transmission and prevention. It also concluded that few cattle in the small-scale milk production sector get tested for BTB and that the level of knowledge of the milk producers on BTB, in this sector, is associated with this.

Keywords: bovine tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, veterinary extension.


1. Suzen EA. Merck Veterinary Manual. NJ, USA: Merck & Co. in Cooperation with Merial Ltd.; 1998.

2. World Health Organization. Tuberculosis Global Facts. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017.

3. Ayele WY, Neill SD, Zinsstag J, Weiss MG, Pavlik I. Bovine tuberculosis?: An old disease but a new threat to Africa. Vet Res 2004;8:924-37.

4. Cosivi O, Grange JM, Daborn CJ, Raviglione MC, Fujikura T, Cousins D, et al. Zoonotic tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in developing countries. Emerg Infect Dis 1998;4:59-70. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]

5. Humblet M, Boschiroli ML, Saegerman CS. Review article classification of worldwide bovine tuberculosis risk factors in cattle?: A stratified approach. Vet Res 2009;40:50. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]

6. Shitaye JE, Tsegaye W, Pavlik I. Bovine tuberculosis infection in animal and human populations in Ethiopia: A review. Vet Med 2007;52:317-32.

7. Organization for International Epizootics (O.I.E). Terrestrial Manual: World Assembly of Delegates. Paris Organization for International Epizootics (O.I.E); 2009.

8. Mc Geary, A. The role of Mycobacterium bovis in Africa. Med J Ther Afr 2008;2:59-62.

9. Mosalagae D, Pfukenyi DM, Matope G. Milk producers' awareness of milk-borne zoonoses in selected smallholder and commercial dairy farms of Zimbabwe. Trop Anim Health Prod 2011;43:733-9. [Crossref] [PubMed]

10. Grace D, Mutua F, Ochungo P, Kruska R, Jones K, Brierley L, et al. Mapping of Poverty and Zoonoses Likely Hotspots Report; Project 4, Funded by DFID. Nairobi, Kenya: International Livestock Research Institute; 2012.

11. Ameni G, Erkihun A. Bovine tuberculosis on small-scale dairy farms in Adama town, central Ethiopia, and farmer awareness of the disease. Rev Sci Tech 2007;26:711-9. [Crossref] [PubMed]

12. Mumba C, Pandey GS. Assessment of Opportunities for Improving Dairy Production, Marketing, and Adoption of Good Animal Husbandry Practices within Traditional Cattle Keeping Areas of Zambia. Zambia: SNV Dairy Study; 2012.

13. Hachaambwa M, Hantuba H, Nawiko M. Trends in Growth of Modern Retail and Wholesale Chains and Related Agribusiness. Information Sheet I. Zambia; 2007.

14. Demelash B, Inangolet F, Oloya J, Asseged B, Badaso M, Yilkal A, et al. Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in Ethiopian slaughter cattle based on post-mortem examination. Trop Anim Health Prod 2009;41:755-65. [Crossref] [PubMed]

15. Tigre W, Alemayehu G, Abetu T, Deressa B. Preliminary study on the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis in Jimma town and its surroundings, South-western Ethiopia. Glob Vet 2011;6:369-73.

16. Munyeme M, Muma J, Mungandu H, Kankya C, Skjerve E, Tryland M, et al. Cattle owners' awareness of bovine tuberculosis in high and low prevalence settings of the wildlife-livestock interface areas in Zambia. BMC Vet Res 2010;6:21. [Crossref] [PubMed] [PMC]

17. Tebug S. Factors associated with milk producer's awareness and practices in relation to zoonoses in northern Malawi. Vet World 2013;6:249. [Crossref]