Article history: Received: 01-01-2016, Accepted: 12-04-2016, Published online: 29-04-2016
Corresponding author: I. O. Nwankwo
E-mail: email@example.comCitation: Nwankwo IO, Faleke OO, Salihu MD, Magaji AA, Musa U, Garba J, Ibitoye EB. Detection and viability of Campylobacter species isolates from different species of poultry and humans in Sokoto State, Nigeria. Int J One Health 2016;2: 19-23.
Aim: The study was conducted to determine the prevalence and viability of Campylobacter species isolates from different species of poultry and humans in Sokoto State, Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in the live birds markets, humans on admission and at outpatient clinics in the randomly selected hospitals in Sokoto State. Isolation and characterization of Campylobacter species were performed using standard culture isolation techniques and biochemical characterization. A total of 798 (506 cloacal and 292 fecal) swabs from poultry and humans, respectively, were collected and analyzed. The viability of 307 isolates stored in 15% glycerol and 85% tryptone broth at -20℃ was determined after 7-13 months.
Results: A total of 312 (39%) were positive for Campylobacter species which comprises 119 (30%), 20 (30%), 3 (14%), 9 (56%), 1 (50%), and 160 (55%) in chicken, guinea fowls, pigeons, ducks, turkey, and humans, respectively. The total of 38 (24%), 63 (39%), and 59 (37%) humans and 29 (19%), 79 (52%), and 44 (29%) poultry isolates were positive for Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter Coli, and Campylobacter Lari, respectively. A total of 261 (85%) of the stored isolates were still viable on re-isolation with the viability rates of 41 (95%), 67 (85%), and 17 (59%) at 7, 9, and 13 months of storage, respectively. There was a negative correlation between months of storage and viability rates. However, there was no significant statistical association (p>0.05) between prevalence rate and species of poultry.
Conclusion: Campylobacter species have been detected with varying degree of prevalence in both poultry and humans and their ability to survive freezing at -20℃ (95%) for up to 7 months has been revealed in the study. This is not only a concern to food and livestock industries but also a concern to the public health at large, especially, in view of the study area being considered one of the largest livestock producers in Nigeria. Campylobacteriosis is known to be associated with the cost of gastroenteritis management, antimicrobial resistance, food contamination, and complications such as a paralytic condition called Guillain-Barre syndrome.
Keywords: Campylobacter species, humans, poultry, Sokoto, Nigeria.
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